Gears of (Cyber)War – C++ Code to Detect Version of Windows

A common structure in malware, and also in many legitimate software is to recognize what is the underlying operating system (OS). Depending on the version of it, the virus may want to take different route to execute its activities. This functionality can be reused across different programs and is therefore useful to create and optimize. In this post, we design a function to detect the version of the Windows OS on which the program is currently running.

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Introduction

A common structure in malware, and also in many legitimate software is to recognize what is the underlying operating system (OS). Depending on the version of it, the virus may want to take different route to execute its activities. This functionality can be reused across different programs and is therefore useful to create and optimize. In this post, we coded a function to detect the version of the Windows OS on which the program is currently running.

Windows Versions

The Windows OS is known to have a confusing version system, which is often the result of marketing pressure. As such, while all software usually follow a version number specifying the major version, the minor version and the revision (and sometimes the build), Windows swings between years of release (ex. Windows 2000), fancy names (Windows Vista) or some designated number (Windows 7). However, in the underlying machinery of Windows are defined standard version numbers, ex. 5.1. Below is the correspondance between Windows operating systems and standard versions.

When programming in C/C++, the version number of Windows can be obtained via the OSVERSIONINFO structure (or OSVERSIONINFOEX) and the GetVersionEx Windows API function:

The version information described in the table above is stored in the dwVersionMajor and dwVersionMinor of the OSVERSIONINFO structure. All version of Windows in the table above will store the value VER_PLATFORM_WIN32_NT (0x2) in the variable dwPlatformId of the structure.

Branching C++ Code Based on Version

Based on the description above, we can create a reusable function to detect the version of the Windows OS:

Note that in many cases, we won’t know if the OS is the workstation version of Windows or the server version of it. Also, there is no details for other versions of Windows, i.e. Windows CE, Windows 95 (…should it still be used somewhere..). That’s where OSVERSIONINFOEX is useful. The wProductType variable will be set to VER_NT_WORKSTATION if the current OS is the workstation version. Furthermore, you can retrieve service packs numbers and edition information with wServicePackMajorwServicePackMinor and wSuiteMask. So if you need more details about the Windows OS, you can include these as well:

For a full version of the procedure, visit this GitHub page, you’ll find the C/C++ code.

Conclusion

Practically any malware at some point will need to check the version of the operating system being infected in order to enable specific functions or exploit certain vulnerability. Rarely will this check go as far as getting the suite, but Remote Access Tool (RAT) and bots will report the operating system, the version and the service pack. If you are a malware analyst, expeect this function to be present in whatever piece of code you’re analyzing.

LATimes: Agent.BTZ Might be Concerted Cyber-Attack

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The Los Angeles Times reports that the reports about the Agent.BTZ worm spreading to the U.S Army networks might be a coordinated attacks originating from Russia[1].

The U.S Central Command is now infected with the worm and a high-classified network has been hit also.

It is unclear if the author of the article thinks that an infection is the same things as an ‘attack’ though. From the article:

“Military electronics experts have not pinpointed the source or motive of the attack and could not say whether the destructive program was created by an individual hacker or whether the Russian government may have had some involvement.”

This infection has been report at the beginning of the month. This might just be sensationalism ofrcomplete ignorance from the author who might think than an infection by a worm made in Russia is a deliberate attack.

Officials would not describe the exact threat from agent.btz, or say whether it could shut down computers or steal information. Some computer experts have reported that agent.btz can allow an attacker to take control of a computer remotely and to take files and other information from it.

Then maybe they should just call Symantec or F-Secure or even better, Google it…or this if they are having a hard time..

See also:

“U.S Army Infected by Worm”, Jonathan Racicot, Cyberwarfare Magazine, November 11, 2008, http://cyberwarfaremag.wordpress.com/2008/11/20/us-army-infected-by-worm/

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[1] “Cyber-attack on Defense Department computers raises concerns”, Julian E. Barnes, Los Angeles Times,  November 28, 2008, http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/iraq/complete/la-na-cyberattack28-2008nov28,0,230046.story (accessed on November 28, 2008)

Srizbi is back

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Update: The new Estonian company that hosted the command & control server, Starline Web Services, was shut down. The domain name chase continues !

The Srizbi botnet is back online after being shut down by the closure of the criminal hosting company McColo Corp two weeks ago. Srizbi’s command and controls servers, now moved to an Estonian hosting provider, took back control of the botnet[1] in the last days.

The Srizbi Botnet

The Srizbi botnet is mostly a spam generating botnet. According to security firm FireEye, there are 50 variants of the bot, which controls altogether around 500 000 zombies across the world[2]. The most virulent forms of Srizbi are said to control around 50 000 bots.

The Srizbi botnet had a backup procedure in case its C&C servers went down, that is why it got back online very fast. Included in the bot, is a procedure that generates domain names[3] and tries to contact it to see if the C&C is available. Therefore the owners, knowing the random-generating domain name algorithm of the botnet, only had to register one or more of the domain names that will be generated by the bots and install their new control and command server on a machine registered a valid domain name. That is enough for bots to download a new version, pointing to a new address for the botnet. To explain it using pseudo-code, it would look something like this:

More information can be found about the random name generation algorithm at FireEye[4]. Interesting enough, the algorithm is based on date to generate a new set of possible domains names by period. FireEye had successfully discovered this function after McColo closed, but due to financial constraint, they could not register all the domain names that the bot generated. That would have implied to register more than 450 domains each week…

We have registered a couple hundred domains,” Fengmin Gong, chief security content officer at FireEye Inc., “but we made the decision that we cannot afford to spend so much money to keep registering so many [domain] names.[5]

Communications intercepted between a Srizbi bot and its Command and Control Server
Communications intercepted between a Srizbi bot and its Command and Control Server

According to the Symantec Srizbi webpage[6], the worm creates windbg48.sys and another randomly named .SYS file in the %SYSTEM% folder. It then registers the wingdbg48.sys as a driver by inserting the hidden HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\windbg48 key into the Windows’ Registry. Srizbi hides those keys by running in Kernel mode and hooking the ZwOpenKey and ZwEnumerateKey kernel functions among others. It might also try to block access to the registry. A tool is available in order to access the registry anyway.

It will also hide its files by hooking the NTFS file system driver. As if it was not enough, it will also modify the TCP/IP network drivers to bypass Firewalls and Intrusion Detection systems. It will also work in Safe Mode.

For those who wish to go deeper, Windows has two levels of execution: user mode and kernel mode. Usually applications run in user mode, which protects the kernel from applications so they won’t mess up the system. Kernel mode is a privilege mode where services and drivers have access to system resources such as the processor but also the memory… Hooking kernel functions is done by redirecting calls made to the kernel to a custom function. There are a couple of ways to do that in kernel mode, and one of them is to alter the System Service Descriptor Table, which is a table that maps every kernel function to an address in memory. By modifying this table to the address of your custom function, you could hook the kernel. This however would be easily detected by any anti-virus.

Another way is to insert an unconditional jump instruction into the kernel function by modifying the function directly in memory. The advantage of this method is that it’s much harder to detect, and can reproduce the same functionality of the hooked function. This is called inline function hooking.

This why this Trojan can also work in Safe Mode. I don’t know if this particular Trojan uses inline function hooking, but rootkits that uses this kind of hooking are quite hard and dangerous to remove.

Return of Srizbi

When McColo Corp. closed two weeks ago following and investigation by the Washington Post’s Security Fix, it made the news across the Internet as this hosting company was considered responsible for around 75 percent of all the spam sent across the web. Although many rejoiced, including me, at the sudden drop of spam as soon as McColo was turn off[7], everyone knew it was only temporary before the cyber criminals would found another hosting company.

Few knew that this random domain name generating routine was coded to connect to another C&C server though. As soon as it came back online, the first command it received was for a Russian spam campaign. By generating domain names such as yrytdyip.com, auaopagr.com, qpqduqud.com or ydywryfu.com, it was unthinkable for FireEye to register every possibility generated by Srizbi. It is becoming harder and harder to fight botnets on a technical basic. Fortunately, the economic fight could maybe put an end to spam, as mentioned in this Ars Technica article:

“… it suggests that spammers may be extremely sensitive to costs-more so than was previously believed. Even a small increase in the cost of sending an e-mail, they postulate, could have significant ramifications for the botnet industry, and might slow the rate at which it grows or put some spam operations out of business altogether.[8]

The Rustock, Cutwail and Asprox botnets are also making a come back[9], provoking a new surge in spam in the last few days, but not quite yet at the same level of the pre-McColo era.

See also:

Windows Rootkits of 2005, Part One“, James Butler, Sherri Sparks, Security Focus, November 4, 2005, http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1850, (accessed on November 27, 2008)

Fallback C&C channels“, Alex Lanstein, Atif Mushtaq, Julia Wolf, and Todd Rosenberry, FireEye, November 16, 2008,  http://blog.fireeye.com/research/2008/11/fallback-cc-channels-part-deux.html#more (accessed on November 27, 2008)


[1] “Massive botnet returns from the dead, starts spamming”, Gregg Keizer, ComputerWorld, November 26, 2008, http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9121678 (accessed on November 27, 2008)

[2] “Srizbi Botnet Re-Emerges Despite Security Firm’s Efforts”, Brian Krebs, Washington Post – Security Fix, November 26, 2008, http://voices.washingtonpost.com/securityfix/2008/11/srizbi_botnet_re-emerges_despi.html?hpid=news-col-blogs (accessed on November 27, 2008)

[3] “Technical details of Srizbi’s domain generation algorithm”, Julia Wolf, November 25, 2008, http://blog.fireeye.com/research/2008/11/technical-details-of-srizbis-domain-generation-algorithm.html (accessed on November 27, 2008)

[4] Ibid.

[5] “Massive botnet returns from the dead, starts spamming”, Gregg Keizer, ComputerWorld, November 26, 2008, http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9121678 (accessed on November 27, 2008)

[6] “Trojan.Srizbi”, Kaoru Hayashi, Symantec, July 23, 2007, http://www.symantec.com/security_response/writeup.jsp?docid=2007-062007-0946-99&tabid=2 (accessed on November 27, 2008)

[7] “Spam plummets after Calif. hosting service shuttered”, Gregg Keizer, ComputerWorld Security, http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9119963 (accessed on November 27, 2008)

[8] “Study: Storm botnet brought in daily profits of up to $9,500”, Joel Hruska, Ars Technica, November 10, 2008, http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20081110-study-storm-botnet-brought-in-daily-profits-of-up-to-9500.html (accessed on November 27, 2008)

[9] “Srizbi botnet active again”, Jeremy Kirk, November 27, 2008, http://www.itworldcanada.com/a/Departmental-and-End-User-Computing/7167ba6c-1cd2-4c54-9338-95a63bea47fa.html (accessed on November 27, 2008)

Malware Authors Loves Obama Too

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The Register reports that malware creators are already using Mr. Obama’s popularity to distribute the Papras Trojan using spam, social engineering and Google Ads[1].

Users usually receive an email from what seems a legitimate news sources such as CNN and BBC, inviting users to see the speech of Barack Obama on their website. The content of the email is the following[2]:

Barack Obama Elected 44th President of United States

Barack Obama, unknown to most Americans just four years ago, will become the 44th president and the first African-American president of the United States.
Watch His amazing speech at November 5!

Proceed to the election results news page>>

2008 American Government Official Website
This site delivers information about current U.S. Foreign policy and about American life and culture.

And senders are usually:

  • news@cnn.com
    news@usatoday.com
    news@online.com
    news@c18-ss-1-lb.cnet.com
    news@president.com
    news@unitedstates.com
    news@bbc.com

The email contains a link to a fake website, which prompts the users to update their Flash player in order to see the speech. Of course, the update is actually a Trojan.

Screen shots of the email and fake website, from F-Secure[3]:

 

Papras is an information stealing Trojan, trying to get a hold of logins and passwords among others. This Trojan is detected by only 14 of the 36 major anti-virus programs.


[1] “Obama-themed malware mauls world+dog”, Dan Goodin, The Register, November 5, 2008, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/11/05/obama_malware_attacks/ (accessed November 6, 2008)

[2] “Computer Virus masquerades as Obama Acceptance Speech Video”, Gary Warner, CyberCrime & Doing Time, November 5, 2008, http://garwarner.blogspot.com/2008/11/computer-virus-masquerades-as-obama.html (accessed on November 6, 2008)

[3] “US Presidential Malware”, F-Secure, November 5, 2008, http://www.f-secure.com/weblog/archives/00001530.html (accessed on November 6, 2008)

Fake Anti-Virus Brings in 158 000$ a Week

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Russian criminals who are selling a fake anti-virus, “Antivirus XP 2008/2009” among others, have made more than 150 000$ in a week, according to the Sydney Morning Herald[1]. If you ever seen those annoying popups warning you that you might be infected with one or more viruses, then you probably came across this scam.

Fake Spyware Detection Alert
Fake Spyware Detection Alert

“For most people they might just be browsing the web and suddenly they don’t know why this thing will pop up in their face, telling them they’ve got 309 infections on their computer, it will change their desktop wallpaper, change their screen saver to fake ‘blue screens of death’,” said Joe Stewart, from SecureWorks said.

The software is sold for 49.95 $US and will “detect” various viruses and Trojans on the computer. Stewart shows that Antivirus XP still has some basic anti-malware functionality, but as he explains, it’s mostly in case the authors are brought to court “they might try to claim the program is not truly fraudulent – after all, it can clean computers of at least a few malicious programs[2]“. Only 17 minor threats can be removed, far from the 102,563 viruses the anti-virus claims to clean. And don’t expect a refund for the software.

The entity behind this fraudware is called Bakasoftware, a Russian company that pays affiliates to sell its anti-virus to users. Affiliates can earn between 58% and 90% of the sale price. Criminals are therefore using everyway to trick users into installing the software, including scaring the user into believing that he is infected, even using botnets to push the program into the users’ computers.

Since it is not hacking people’s computers and only runs the affiliate program, Bakasoftware does not have to worry about being shut down by police“, Stewart said[3].

Affiliate ID

Affiliate Username

Account Balance (USD)

4928 nenastniy $158,568.86
56 krab $105,955.76
2 rstwm $95,021.16
4748 newforis $93,260.64
5016 slyers $85,220.22
3684 ultra $82,174.54
3750 cosma2k $78,824.88
5050 dp322 $75,631.26
3886 iamthevip $61,552.63
4048 dp32 $58,160.20
Table 1.0 – Top earners in the Bakasoftware Affiliate Program[4]
 

Screenshots took from the administrative panel of bakasoftware.com which was hacked by NeoN:

Bakasoftware Registred Domains
Bakasoftware Registred Domains

Bakasoftware All Socks Controls
Bakasoftware All Socks Controls

(Screenshots are from “Rogue Antivirus Dissected – Part 2”, Joe Steward, SecureWorks, October 22, 2008, http://www.secureworks.com/research/threats/rogue-antivirus-part-2/?threat=rogue-antivirus-part-2)

By the time of this writing, http://www.bakasoftware.com/ was not accessible. Another interesting fact, if the Russian language is installed on your computer, there’s a good chance you won’t be considered as a target because of Russian legislation. Apparently the creators have been sued anyway[5].

Many other fraudware are available, always proposing anti-malware software. Their ads are oven seen on torrents, warez and cracks/serials sites. What’s particularly dangerous is that they can come with other legitimate software or by drive-by downloads. Once they are installed in your computer, they get annoying very fast and can trick you into buying fraudware. Popups can appear that you are infected. Other types of fraudware are those “boost your computer” software.

P.S “baka” means “stupid” in Japanese. A totally appropriate title for the operators of this company.
See also:

“Fake software nets hacker $158,000 in a week”, Stewart Meagher, The Inquirer, November 5, 2008, http://www.theinquirer.net/gb/inquirer/news/2008/11/05/fake-antivirus-nets-hacker-150 (accessed on November 5, 2008)

“Antiviral ‘Scareware’ Just One More Intruder”, John Markoff, The New York Times, October 29, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/30/technology/internet/30virus.html (accessed on November 5, 2008)

“Crooks can make $5M a year shilling fake security software”, Gregg Keizer, ComputerWorld, October 31, 2008, http://computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&taxonomyName=security_hardware_and_software&articleId=9118778&taxonomyId=145&intsrc=kc_top (accessed on November 5, 2008)


[1] “Russian scammers cash in on pop-up menace”, Asher Moses, The Sydney Herald, November 4, 2008, p.1, http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/security/russian-scammers-cash-in-on-popup-menace/2008/11/04/1225560814202.html (accessed on November 5, 2008)

 

[2] “Rogue Antivirus Dissected – Part 1”, Joe Stewart, SecureWorks, October 21, 2008, http://www.secureworks.com/research/threats/rogue-antivirus-part-1/?threat=rogue-antivirus-part-1 (accessed on November 5, 2008)

[3] “Russian scammers cash in on pop-up menace”, Asher Moses, The Sydney Herald, November 4, 2008, p.2, http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/security/russian-scammers-cash-in-on-popup-menace/2008/11/04/1225560814202.html (accessed on November 5, 2008)

[4] “Rogue Antivirus Dissected – Part 2”, Joe Steward, SecureWorks, October 22, 2008, http://www.secureworks.com/research/threats/rogue-antivirus-part-2/?threat=rogue-antivirus-part-2 (accessed on November 5, 2008)

[5] “Infamous vendor of “AntiVirus XP” badware sued”, Adam O’Donnell, ZDNet, September 30th, 2008, http://blogs.zdnet.com/security/?p=1980 (accessed on November 5, 2008


Bank Account Stealing Trojan Rampaging the Internet

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The details of about 500,000 online bank accounts and credit and debit cards have been stolen by a trojan
The details of about 500,000 online bank accounts and credit and debit cards have been stolen by a trojan

BBC News reports that a trojan, labeled Sinowal, has been crawling across the Internet. The Trojan is notorious for stealing bank account details. Sean Brady of RSA‘s security division reports that “more than 270,000 banking accounts and 240,000 credit and debit cards have been compromised from financial institutions in countries including the US, UK, Australia and Poland.[1]” According to Sophos researchers, 14 computers per seconds were infected by Sinowal in 2008[2].

The Trojan is also known as Torpig and Mebroot and has now been discovered 2 years ago, in 2006, which means it has been collecting information for now 2 years. It uses the drive-by download method to download itself, which means it download and install itself without the user’s knowledge. In the case of this particular Trojan, this is done mainly thought malicious links and HTML injection attacks.

The Trojan installs itself on the master boot record and his polymorphic, making it hard to detect and to remove[3]. RSA suspects that the Sinowal had strong ties to a cybercriminal gang known as the Russian Business Network.


[1] “Trojan virus steals banking info”, Maggie Shiels, BBC News, October 31, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7701227.stm (accessed on November 2, 2008)

[2] Idem

[3] “RSA Cracks Down on Legendary Sinowal Trojan“, Richard Adhikari, Internet News, October 31, 2008, http://www.internetnews.com/security/article.php/3782221/RSA+Cracks+Down+on+Legendary+Sinowal+Trojan.htm (accessed on November 2, 2008)

First Internet Worm is 20 years old Sunday

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In 1988, the computer world faced a new cyber menace that is still very well alive today. The first computer worm, written by a student called Robert Tappan Morris.

From Wikipedia:

“The original intent, according to him, was to gauge the size of the Internet. He released the worm from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to conceal the fact that it actually originated from Cornell. The worm was designed to count how many machines were connected to the Internet. Unknown to Morris, the worm had a design flaw. The worm was programmed to check each computer it found to determine if the infection was already present. However, Morris believed that some administrators might try to defeat his worm by instructing the computer to report a false positive. To compensate for this possibility, Morris directed the worm to copy itself anyway, fourteen percent of the time, no matter the response to the infection-status interrogation.”

Infection Map of the Code Red Worm
Infection Map of the Code Red Worm

Nowadays, worms are notorious for spreading malicious payloads across the entire Internet. It also known as an extremely efficient cyber weapon to mass exploit vulnerabilities on a large scale. Popular worms include Code Red, in 2001, which infected up to 359 000 machines[1], Klez, Blaster, Sasser are also notorious computer worms. Here is a table of notorious worms from the last decade:

Worm

Year

Damage ($US)

CIH 1998 $20 to $80 million
Melissa 1999 $1 billion
ILoveYou 2000 $5.5 billion to $8.7 billion in damages; ten percent of all Internet-connected computers hit
Code Red 2001 $2 billion; a rate of $200 million in damages per day
SQL Slammer 2003 Shut down South Korea’s online capacity for 12 hours; affected 500,000 servers worldwide
Blaster 2003 between $2 and $10 billion; hundreds of thousands of infected PCs
Sobig 2003 500,000 computers worldwide; as much as $1 billion in lost productivity
Sasser 2004 tens of millions of dollars; shut down the satellite communications for some French news agencies; several Delta airline flights were cancelled; shut down numerous companies’ systems worldwide
MyDoom 2004 Slowed global Internet performance by 10 percent and Web load times by up to 50 percent
Bagle 2004 Tens of millions of dollars

Table 1.0 – Top 10 Computer Worms[2]

See also:

Morris worm turns 20: Look what it’s done“, Carolyn Duffy Marsan, Network World, October 30, 2008, http://www.networkworld.com/news/2008/103008-morris-worm.html?page=1 (accessed October 31, 2008)

Morris Worm To Turn 20 – How Far Things Have Come“, Darknet, October 31, 2008, http://www.darknet.org.uk/2008/10/morris-worm-to-turn-20-how-far-things-have-come/ (accessed October 31, 2008)


[1] “The Spread of the Code-Red Worm (CRv2)”, David Moore, Colleen Shannon, CAIDA, September 14, 2007, http://www.caida.org/research/security/code-red/coderedv2_analysis.xml (accessed October 31, 2008)

[2] “Top 10 worst computer viruses”, George Garza, Catalogs.com, February 17, 2008, http://www.catalogs.com/info/travel-vacations/top-10-worst-computer-viruses.html (accessed October 31, 2008)